Aromatic, Pungent & Related Flavor Components Of Food

Aromatic and organoleptic compounds found in food:
"Organoleptic properties are the aspects of food or other substances as experienced by the senses, including taste, sight, smell, and touch."

ambrettolide   		Oxacycloheptadec-10-en-2-one: 	a macrocyclic musk: C16H28O2,  		strong musky odor, 				Ambrette seed,
							CAS # 28645-51-4:			soapy type odor and an soapy type flavor: 
												Musky, Powerful, Warm, Fruity, slight floral: 
												fixative in the manufacture of perfume.  
angelica						a lactone
anethole  	  (E)-1-methoxy-4-(1-propenyl)benzene 	phenolic: phenylpropene: C10H12O	sweet, warm: 13 times sweeter than sugar	Anise		
												Ouzo and Pernod
ascaridol 			?			?					?						Epazote
borneol				?			Phenolic				?						Rosemary
carene				?			?					?						Pink Pepper
carvacrol		(cymophenol)			monoterpenoid phenol	C10H14O		Pleasant taste, smel				Oregano, Thyme, Pepperwort, 
												Antimicrobial, slows bacterial growth		bergamot, savory, marjoram,
carvone: L-carvone					terpene											Spearmint
carvone: D-carvone					terpene											Peppermint
caryophyllene 	    Beta-caryophyllene != humulene	terpene: Sesquiterpenes	C15H24		woody						Allspice, Cinnamon, Clove
																		Grains of paradise
cineole							terpene					Eucalyptus					Eucalyptus, Basil, 
																		Bay, Lavendar,
																		Spearmint, Rosemary,Sage 
cinnamaldehyde						phenolic				Cinnamon and cassia				Cassia, Cinnamon
cinnamyl acetate	3-Phenylprop-2-enyl acetate	Ester					Anise						Cassia, Cinnamon
citral							terpene/Aldehyde mix: geranial+neral	lemon, citrus, fruity and green scent		Citronella, lemon balm, 
							geranial = citral a, neral = citral b											lemon myrtle
citronellal						terpene/Aldehyde			like citral, but less sweet and fruity 		Citronella, lemon balm, 
																		lemon myrtle
cucumber aldehyde					terpene/Aldehyde									Borage, cucumber?
cuminaldehyde						terpene/Aldehyde			cumin						Cumin
curcumene         1-Methyl4(6methyl5hepten2yl)benzene	terpene: sesquiterpene	C15H22		woody						Turmeric
decenal							?					citrus						Coriander
dill ether						Ether					minty, floral, weak dill-like (Blank et al.)	Dill
												Odor Perception Threshold = 25 ppb in water		
estragole  	  1-allyl-4-methoxybenzene		phenolic: phenylpropene  C10H12O	Sweet-herbaceous Anise-Fennel 			Avocado leaf, Basil,
												EXPECTED CARCINOGEN				Chervil,Tarragon, Star anise
eugenol		  4-Allyl-2-methoxyphenol		phenolic: Phenylpropane  C10H12O2	clove-like aroma. (liver toxin)			Cloves, Cinnamon, Nutmeg,
																		Sweet Basil, African Basil, 
																		Tulsi or Holy Basil, 
																		anise, Lemon balm, Dill, 
																		Pimenta racemosa
fenchone    1,3,3-Trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-one	terpene:                 C10H16O	camphor-like, penetrating			Fennel					
geraniol	3,7-Dimethylocta-2,6-dien-1-ol		terpene/alcohol		C10H18O		floral: sweet rose				Lemongrass, Nutmeg, 
							monoterpenoid+alcohol			Effective mosquito repellent			Sichuan	Pepper, Sansho
geranyl acetate   3,7-Dimethyl-2,6-octadiene acetate	terpene: monoterpene	C12H20O2	pleasant floral or fruity rose aroma		lemon grass, petit grain, 
																		neroli, geranium, coriander, 
																		carrot, Camden woollybutt, 
guaiacol	2-methoxyphenol				phenolic:phenolic acid	C6H4(OH)(OCH3)	penetrating (woody?)				vanilla, roasted coffee
												eugenol, vanillin precursor			
												expectorant, antiseptic, local anesthetic.
												oxygen turns it from colorless to brown.			
humulene       alpha caryophyllene 			terpene: Sesquiterpenes	C15H24	  	woody ("earthy, herbal")			Annatto, Grains of paradise
lactone							ketone / cyclic ester			woody						Angelica			
lavandulyl acetate					ester?			C12H20O2	fresh citrus fruity nuance, weak floral		Lavender
linalyl acetate						ester			C12H20O2	fruity odor reminiscent of bergamot mint oil	Lavender
												acetate ester of linalool, often coincide
limonene    1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)-cyclohexene	terpene: cyclic terpene	C10H16		Fruity/citrus, D isomer: strong orange		Angelica, Dill, Epazote
												In citrus rinds, may treat/prevent cancer	Spearmint, Perilla, Sassafras,
																		Tarragon, citrus rinds,
																		Annatto, Caraway, Cardamom
																		Celery seed, Dill seed,
																		Fennel seed, Nutmeg,
																		Black pepper, pink pepper,
																		Star anise, Sumac
linalool      linalyl alcohol, linaloyl oxide...	alcohol			C10H18O		floral, slightly spicey				> 200 plants including:
												Potentially inhibits cancer			Basil, Bay, Lavender,
																		Lavender, Lemon verbena,
																		Marjoram, Sassafras,
																		Thyme, Cardamom, Cinnamon,
																		Coriander, Ginger, 
																		Grains of paradise, 
																		Sichuan pepper, Sansho, 
																		Star anise, Vanilla 			
menthatriene  5-Isopropenyl-2-methyl-1,3-cyclohexadiene terpene: 		C10H14		Parsley						Parsley
methoxycinnamate  (E)-3-(2-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-enal	phenol/aldehyde		C10H10O2	celery seed					celery seed, galangal
methyl cinnamate  Methyl (E)-3-Phenylprop-2-enoate	terpene: methel ester	C10H10O2 	Strong sweet strawberry + cinnamon		Cinnamin, Galangal,
																		Sichuan pepper, strawberry,
																		some basil varieties, clove																	
methyleugenol	1,2-Dimethoxy-4-prop-2-en-1-ylbenzene	phenol: methyl ether 	C11H14O2	Methyl ether of eugenol				anise, Bananas?, Basil, Bay, 
												EXPECTED CARCINOGEN				Mace, Nutmeg, pimento, rose
												Odor of cloves and carnations			Cinnamon leaves, pixuri seeds,
																		Laurel fruits + leaves.
																		"Has been found in 
																		 blackberry essence, 
																	   	 bananas, black pepper, and 
myrcene	      7-Methyl-3-methylene-1,6-octadiene	terpene: monoterpene	C10H16		"pleasant," not stable in isolation		Annatto, Mastic, Nutmeg
																		Juniper berry, spearmint,
																		Parsley, Rosemary, Sassafras
																		Tarragon, Thyme, hops	
myristicin   6-allyl-4-methoxy-1,3-benzodioxole		phenol: phenylpropene	C11H12O3	Woody;  Neurotoxin, psychoactive, damage	Mace, Nutmeg (0.2-1.2% wtg)
ocimene	    a: 3,7-dimethyl-1,3,7-octatriene		terpene: set of		C10H16		"Pleasant", "sweet," "warm," "herbacious"	Lavendar
	    ß: 3,7-dimethyl-1,3,6-octatriene		  isomeric hydrocarbons
paeonol     1-(2-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)ethanone	phenol			C9H10O3		woody: antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory		Licorice
												anti-lipid peroxidation
perillaldehyde 	(S)-4-(1-Methylethenyl)-1-		terpene aldehyde, mcyc	C10H14O		mint-like, cinnamon odor 			Perilla, false camphor wood	
		cyclohexene-1-carboxaldehyde							flavor enhancer, perfume			less: mint; thyme; sage; rosemary
																		& other Labiatae, 
																		Greater water parsnip
phellandrene    a:2-Methyl-5-(1-methylethyl)-1,		terpene, cyclic mono-	C10H16		peppery-minty and slightly citrusy		Angelica, Curry leaf, Parsley,
		3-cyclohexadiene														Sassafras, Tarragon, 
																		Cumin, Dill seed, Ginger,
																		Pink pepper, Sichuan pepper,
																		Eucalyptus dives,
																		water fennel, Canada balsam
phthalide(s)	2-Benzofuran-1(3H)-one			cyclic misc?		C8H6O2		example: butylphthalide: celery-like		celery
												oils: butylphthalide, etc.		
												dyes: phenolphthalein, etc.
												fungicides: tetrachlorophthalide, etc.
												protection against:
												 cancer, high blood pressure and high cholesterol.
pinene	    (1S,5S)-2,6,6-trimethylbicyclo		terpene, bicy. mono-	C10H16		Pine (?)					Ajwain, Annatto, Cardamom, 
		[3.1.1]hept-2-ene 								Primary constituents of turpentine.		Coriander, Cumin, Dill seed,
												Constituents of pine resin.			Fennel seed, Galangal, Mace,
												Used by insects to communicate.			Mastic, Nigella, Nutmeg, 
																		Black pepper, pink pepper,
																		Sichuan pepper, Sumac, Angelica,
																		Bay, Calif Bay, Curry leaf, 
																		Dill, Epazote, Hyssop, 
																		Juniper berry, peppermint,
																		Spearmint, Rosemary, Sage,
																		Sassafras, Tarragon, Thyme
pinocamphone 4,6,6-trimethylbicyclo[3.1.1]		phenolic?		C10H16O 	"Fresh"						Hyssop	
pyridines											?pyridine: unpleasant smell.			Spearmint
2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline 					ketone, cyclic imine 	C6H9NO		White bread, basmati + jasmine rice		jasmine rice, basmati rice,
							substituted pyrroline			smell + flavor					pandan, white bread (Maillard reactions)
																		bread flowers 
sabinene  4-methylene-1-(1-methylethyl)bicyclo[3.1.0]	terpene, bicy. mono-	C10H16		spiciness of black pepper			black pepper, carrot seed oil,
		hexane																nutmeg, mace, tea tree oil,'
																		Cardamom, cubeb pepper, 
																		Calif Bay, Juniper berry,
safranal	2,6,6-trimethyl-1,3-			terpene (w/ Ox?)	C10H14O		Hay-like, penetrating		 		Saffron
	     cyclohexadiene-1-carboxaldehyde							Anticonvulsant,  antidepressant
safrole		5-(2-propenyl)-1,3-benzodioxole		phenolic: phenylpropene	C10H10O2	sassafras, EXPECTED CARCINOGEN			sassafras 
												Precursor for MDMA ("Ecstacy")
sedanolide	?					phthalide		C12H18O2	Aroma of celery					celery seed, 
												Antibacterial and Antifungal 
												inhibits carcinogenesis
sulfides: disulfides
sulfides: risulfides
sulfides: tetrasulfides
terpinene      a: 4-methyl-1-(1-methylethyl)-1,3-	terpenes (a vs ß, ?, d)	C10H16		Citrus, Lemon, Lime				cardamom and marjoram  
			cyclohexadiene														Ajwain, 
terpineol	2-(4-Methyl- 1-cyclohex-		monoterpene alcohol	C10H18O		Lilac aroma common in perfumes,			Cardamom, cubeb pepper,
		3-enyl) propan- 2-ol								cosmetics, flavorings				Curry leaf, Lovage, Rosemary
terpenyl acetate  4-Methyl-1-propan-2-yl		ester 			C12H20O2	light sweet smell like lavendar + chayote	???
		  -1-cyclohex-2-enyl) acetate
thujone     a:(1S,4R,5R)-4-Methyl-1-(propan-2-yl)	ketone + monoterpene	C10H16O		menthol odor					Thyme, absinthe's
thymol		2-Isopropyl-5-methylphenol		monoterpene phenol	C10H14O		Thyme odor/flavor				Thyme
turmerone     ar-turmerone,(R)-(-)-ar-Turmerone		Ketone			C15H22O		woody						Turmeric
												Strong anti-oxidant (skin health, etc.)
vanillin	4-Hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde		phenolic aldehyde	C8H8O3		Vanilla aroma/flavor				Vanilla bean, olive oil, 
												Perfumes,  thin layer chromatography		Raspberrry, lychee
zingiberene  2-Methyl-5-(6-methylhept-5-en-2-yl)	monocyclic sesquiterpene C15H24		Ginger flavor					Ginger



allicin		2-Propene-1-sulfinothioic acid		organosulfur compound 	C6H10OS2	distinctively pungent smell.			Garlic
			S-2-propenyl ester							antibacterial, anti-fungal, pest repellent	
allyl isothiocyanate   3-Isothiocyanato-1-propene	organosulfur compound 	C4H5NS		pungent taste of ...				Mustard, horseradish, wasabi.
alpha-hydroxy-sanshool 	(Hydroxy alpha sanshool)	?methyl amine?		16H25NO2	pungent (numbing) taste of...			Sichuan peppercorns															Japanese Sanchoo pepper 
camphor							terpene: Ketone (waxy) 	C10H16O		pungent, cooling, anti-itch			Hyssop, Rosemary, Sage
Capsaicin     8-Methyl-N-vanillyl-trans-6-nonenamide	???			C18H27NO3	pungent (hot) taste of 				Chili peppers
																		Cardamom_large, Coriander,
galangal acetate (S) 1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate		Acetate			C13H14O4	strong pungent, strong woody			Galangal
galangal acetate (R) 1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate		Acetate			C13H14O4	pungent, faint woody and sweet aroma,		Galangal
pinene	    (1S,5S)-2,6,6-trimethylbicyclo		terpene, bicy. mono-	C10H16		Pine (?)					Ajwain, Annatto, Cardamom, 
		[3.1.1]hept-2-ene 								Primary constituents of turpentine.		Coriander, Cumin, Dill seed,
												Constituents of pine resin.			Fennel seed, Galangal, Mace,
												Used by insects to communicate.			Mastic, Nigella, Nutmeg, 
																		Black pepper, pink pepper,
																		Sichuan pepper, Sumac, Angelica,
																		Bay, Calif Bay, Curry leaf, 
																		Dill, Epazote, Hyssop, 
																		Juniper berry, peppermint,
																		Spearmint, Rosemary, Sage,
																		Sassafras, Tarragon, Thyme
quercetin       2-Propene-1-sulfinothioic acid		phenolic 		C15H10O7	Mild bitter flavor in				onion, black and green tea,
		S-2-propenyl ester			flavonol, flavonoid			fruits, vegetables, leaves and grains		Capers, lovage, apples, 
																		Red grapes, citrus fruit,
																		Tomato, broccoli, preckly pear cactus
																		Green leafy vegetables, raspberry,
																		bog whortleberry, lingoberry,
																		Cranberry, chokeberry, sweet rowan,
																		Rowanberry, sea buckthorn, crowberry.		
zingerone	4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-		???			C11H14O3	pungency of ginger				Ginger



anthocyanins						polyphenolic				mildly astringent				most red, blue, purple plant parts
gallic acid
tannic acid


 See Jmol for stuctures 

 Chemical family overview
Table p. 3

Table 1. Classification Of Essential Oil Compounds

Compound 	  Description

Terpene		  Flowery, citrusy, minty, herbaceous, piney: Contains C5H8 (isoprene) building blocks, named by dividing isoprenes by 2: e.g. diterpene has 4 isoprenes (C20H32). Vitamin A is ~diterpene (C20) or aldehyde?
Hydrocarbon 	  Contain only carbon and hydrogen atoms: Example Terpene.  Note that other aromatics have oxygen including all of the following:

Alcohol 	  Contains a hydroxyl group (OH) attached to the terpene structure.
Aldehyde 	  Terpenoids with a carbonyl group (C=O) and hydrogen bonded to a carbon (generally at the end of a carbon chain): Vitamin A is ~diterpene (C20) or aldehyde?
Cyclic aldehydes  Aldehyde group attached to a benzene ring
Ketone 		  Contains a carbonyl (C=0) group bonded to (between) two carbon atoms. A carbonyl group is a carbon double bonded with an oxygen:  C=O
Phenol 		  Spicy, warming, pungent: Hydroxyl group (OH) attached to a benzene ring
Phenolic ether 	  Contains an O between C and benzene ring
Oxide 		  Has an O bridging 2 or more carbons
Ester 		  Fruity: Condensation product of acid and alcohol

Molecular class Ending 	Compound 		Essential oil examples

Hydrocarbons 	ene 	Pinene, limonene 	Citrus, pine
Alcohols 	ol 	Linalool, Menthol, 	Coriander, tea tree, peppermint
Sesquiterpene	ol	alpha-bisabolol		German chamomile, sandalwood
alcohols		santolol, farnesol
Phenols 	ol 	Thymol, borneol 	Thyme, oregano
Phenylpropanes 	ol 	Eugenol, safrol, 	Aniseed, clove, tarragon, myrtle leaf
			elemicin, anethol
Diterpenes 	ol 	Sclareol, carnosol 	Clary sage, rosemary, Vitamin A precursor?
Aldehydes 	al 	Citral, citronellal 	Citronella, lemon balm, lemon myrtle
Cyclic aldehydes hyde 	Cinnamic aldehyde,	Cinnamon, bitter almond, cumin
Ketones 	one 	Pulegone, thujone, 	Pennyroyal, thuja, sage,
			piperitone, camphor	Eucalyptus radiata
Esters 		ate 	Methyl salicylate, 	Lavender, wintergreen, clary sage
			linalyl acetate
Oxides 		ole 	1-8 cineole, 		Eucalyptus, wormseed, cajeput
			linalool oxide
Sesquiterpenes 	ene 	Bisabolene, 		German chamomile, yarrow
Lactones 	in, 	Coumarins – 		Angelica, celery, bergamot
		one 	  umbelliferone,
Sesquiterpene	in 	Helenalin, 		Elecampane, arnica

Terpene is any of a large and varied class of hydrocarbons, with the molecular formula (C5H8)n, 


From Harold McGee's "On Food And Cooking", 2004, p. 391


  Chemical		Aroma

Pinenes			Pine needles and bark
Limonene		Citrus fruits
Terpinene		Citrus fruits
Citral			Citrus fruits
Geraniol		Roses
Linalool		Lily of the valley
Cineole			Eucalyptus
Menthole		Peppermint
Menthone		Peppermint
L-carvone		Spearmint
D-carvone		Caraway


  Chemical		Aroma

Eugenol			Clove
Cinnamaldehyde		Cinnamon and cassia
Anethole		Anise
Vanillin		Vanilla
Thymol			Thyme
Carvacrol		Oregano
Estragole		Tarragon


See also

Molecular genetic and chemical assessment of radix Angelica (Danggui) in China.


All terpenes are synthesized via terpene synthase"



Eugenol is hepatotoxic, meaning it may cause damage to the liver.[17][18]

Overdose is possible, causing a wide range of symptoms from blood in the patient's urine, to convulsions, diarrhea, nausea, unconsciousness, dizziness, or rapid heartbeat.[19] A 2-year old boy nearly died after taking between 5 and 10 ml., according to a published 1993 report.[20]

Eugenol is subject to restrictions on its use in perfumery [21] as some people may become sensitised to it, however the degree to which eugenol can cause an allergic reaction in humans is disputed.[22]

List of plants that contain the chemical

    Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum)[23][24][25]
    Cinnamomum tamala[27]
    Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans)[28]
    Ocimum basilicum[29] – Sweet Basil
    Ocimum gratissimum[30] – African Basil
    Ocimum tenuiflorum (Ocimum sanctum) – Tulsi or Holy Basil
    Japanese star anise[31]

    Lemon balm[32]

    Pimenta racemosa

Cloves, Cinnamon, Nutmeg, Sweet Basil, African Basil, Tulsi or Holy Basil, anise, Lemon balm, Dill, Pimenta racemosa

The Chemistry Of Terpenes:


---- => humulene = caryophyllene biosynthesis


The Nitty Gritty of Essential Oils

There are an astounding amount of aromatic compounds.  More than 30,000 have been researched so far.   Essential oils contain many of these compounds and in some cases, hundreds of different ones.  Each compound contributes to creating unique scent and therapeutic possibilities.

Much can be told just from smelling a plant.  Lemon thyme or lemon eucalyptus shares the scent of lemon but differ in everything else.  Properties of many of the aromatic compounds have been researched and their molecular structure determined.  Studies have been done to discover how they work on the body.  Some aromatic compounds are antiseptic while others may have a sedative effect.   

It is the synergistic effect of all these components that makes an essential oil what it is.  Rose oil alone contains over 300 components which can change depending on how, when and where the plant was grown and harvested.  There is also the issue of how the oils are extracted.  For example, the process of distillation releases only lighter aromatic molecules, while absolutes,
concretes and resinoids contain both the lighter and heavier molecules, thus creating a more powerful scent.   These oils perform strong actions on our physical and mental mechanisms.

Essential oils consist of chemical compounds which have hydrogen, carbon and oxygen as their building blocks. These are then subdivided into 2 groups: the hydrocarbons which are made up of mostly terpenes and the oxygenated compounds which are mainly alcohols, aldehydes: esters, ketones, phenols and oxides.  Although technology is advancing, there are many more yet to be discovered. Current methods of analysing depend on the sensitivity of a technique called GC-Mass Spec (Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry) analysis.   This technique is limited because it relies on the accurate interpretation of the operator and the fact that some components are so minor they do not register on GS detectors. Instead these minor components can be individually smelled and identified by experienced perfumers. In some cases, these undetected compounds can contribute hugely to an odor profile and may also be responsible for an oil’s particular effect on our physiological and psychological state.

Below is a chemical break-down of essential oils.  Because essential oils are so complex, many will fall into one or more categories.

Alcohols – Alcohols are generally considered safe and have a very low or totally absent toxic reaction in the body or on the skin and so can be used on children. They are extremely useful due to their antiviral, antibacterial and antiseptic properties. Alcohols are present either as a free compound or combined with a terpene or ester and are found in ylang ylang and lavender as linalool, geraniol in geranium and palmarosa and citronellol found in rose, lemon and eucalyptus. Other alcohols include menthol, nerol and benzyl alcohol.  These essential oils are skin toners.  Their scent is considered a tonic to the nervous system.
Aldehydes – Alderhydes are found in lemon-scented oils such as melissa, lemon
verbena, citronella etc and include citral, citronellal and neral. They generally have sedative qualities with specific antiseptic properties.  Other known alderhydes include benzaldehyde, cinnamic alderhyde and perillaldehyde. Essential oils containing alderhydes are
helpful in treating inflammation, Candida and viral infections.  Some aldehydes should be used with caution because they could cause allergies or irritate skin.
Coumarins – can thin the blood.  They are also calming and uplifting when they are inhaled.  Some coumarins can make your skin sensitive to the sun.
Esters – Esters are the most widespread group found in essential oils. They are formed through the reaction of alcohols with acids and include linalyl acetate found in bergamot and lavender, geranyl acetate found in sweet marjoram and geranyl formate found in geranium. Oils containing esters are often used for their soothing and antifungal qualities and for helping to balance the nervous system.  Esters are generally safe with the exception of methyl salicylate found in sweet birch, which is not toxic, but harmful in concentration.soothe muscle spasms and irritated skin.  They kill fungal infections.  Many are very relaxing when inhaled.
Ester Oxides – will release lung congestion.  Many oxides stimulate mentally when inhaled.
Hydrocarbons – (terpenes and sesquilterpenes) reduce bacterial infections, inflammation and intestinal gas.  They may be mentally stimulating.  Hydrocarbons are one of two most common chemical types found in essential oils.
Ketones – Some of the most toxic constituents are ketones, such has thujone found in mugwort, sage and wormwood oils, while pulegone is found in pennyroyal and pinocamphone in hyssops. However some are non-toxic such as jasmone found in jasmine, fenchone in fennel and carvone in spearmint and dill and menthone found in peppermint. Ketones are often found in plants that are used for upper respiratory ailments so help ease congestion and aid the flow of mucus.  They promote wound healing.  Some of them are considered to stimulate fat metabolism.  
Oxides - The most important oxide is cineol (or eucalyptol) and it stands almost in a class of its own. It is an effective expectorant and is the principal constituent (70-85 per cent) of eucalyptus oil (from the blue gum tree). However it is found in a number of other essential oils such as bay, tea tree and rosemary. Common features of this oxide are its analgesic, antiviral, deodorising and
balsamic properties. Other oxides include linalool oxide, bisabolol oxide and ascaridol.
Phenols – are powerful antibacterials.  They warm the skin and stimulate blood flow.  They are mentally stimulating when inhaled.  Phenols are used in liniments because of their heating action.  They should not be confused with the toxic phenol derived from petroleum.  Phenols are one of two most common chemical types found in essential oils.
Phenols - Phenols have an antibacterial and very stimulating effect which can cause skin irritation. Due to their antiseptic and disinfectant properties they are very cleansing but may cause toxicity in the liver if used over a very prolonged period. Common phenols include eugenol found in clove, basil, rose and cinnamon, carvacrol found in oregano, spearmint and savory, and thymol
found in thyme. Other phenols include methyl eugenol, anethole, safrole and apiol among others.

Terpenes - Terpene hydrocarbons tend to be antiviral and antibacterial, but depending on their chemistry, they can also be analgesic, stimulating, antiallergic, anti-inflammatory and hormonal balancers.  Terpenes are categorized as monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and diterpenes and include antiviral limonene (found in 90 per cent of citrus oils), antiseptic pinene found in pine and terpentine and camphene in cypress oil.  As noted above, depending on extraction can determine what constituents are present.  Diterpenes are usually only present in absolutes or tinctures
as the molecule is too heavy to allow for evaporation with steam during the distillation process. Specific research has been done on chamazulene and farnesol (sesquiterpenes found in chamomile oil) due to their amazing anti-inflammatory and bactericidal properties.

Anise Seed, trans-anethole, limonene, chavicol, anisaldehyde

Bergamot, Citrus bergamia – linayl acetate, linalool, nerol, terpineol, linalyl
acetate, bergaptene, dipentene, limonene

Cedarwood, Atlas, Cedrus atlantica – atlantone, caryophyllene, cedrol, cadinene

Cinnamon leaf, Cinnamommum zeylanicum – eugenol, eugenol acetate, cinnamaldehyde, benzyl benzoate, linalool, safrol

Citronella, Cymbopogon winterianus – citronellol, geranyl acetate, limonene, camphene

Clary sage, Salvia sclarea – linalool, salviol, linalyl acetate, cineole, caryophyllene

Clove bud, Eugenia caryophyllus – eugenol, eugenyl acetate, caryophyllene

Frankincense, Boswellia carteri – oinene, dipentene, limonene, thujene, phellendrene, cymene, myrcene, terpinene, octyl acetate, octonel, incensole, cadinene, camphene, pinene, olibanol

Geranium, Pelargonium graveolens – Citronellol, geraniol, linalool, isomenthone, phellandrene, sabinene, limonene, geranic acid, myrtenol, terpineol, citral, methone, eugenol

Jasmine, Jasminum grandiflorum – benzyl acetate, linalool, phenylacetic acid, benzyl alcohol, farnesol, methyl anthranilate, jasmone, methyl jasmonate, geraniol, nerol, terpineol, linalyl acetate, methyl anthranilate, eugenol geraniol, lavandulol, lavandulyl acetate, terpineol, cineol, limonene,
ocimene, caryophyllene, aeranyl acetate, pinene

Lemon, Citrus limonum – limonene, terpinene, pinene, sabinene, myrcene, citral, linalool, geraniol, octanol, nonanol, citronellal, bergamotene, cadinene, bisabolene, camphene, dipentene, phellandrene
Lemongrass, Cymbopogon citratus – citral, myrcene, dipentene, methylheptenone, linalool, geraniol, nerol, citronellol, farnesol

Lime, Citrus aurantifolia – limonene, pinene, camphene, sabinene, terpineol, citral, cymene, cineol, linalool, linalyl acetate, bergaptene, terpinoline

Marjoram, Sweet, Origanum marjorana – terpinene, borneol, terpineol, sabinene, linalool, carvacrol, linalyl acetate, ocimene, cadinene, geranyl acetate, citral, eugenol, camphor, caryophyllene, pinene

Orange, Sweet, Citrus sinensis - limonene, myrcene, camphene, pinene, ocimene, cymene, nerol, citral, methyl anthranilate, bergapten, auraptenol

Palmarosa, Cymbopogon martini – geraniol, farnesol, geranyl acetate, methyl heptenone, citronellol, citral, dipentene, limonene, citronellal

Patchouli, Pogostemon cablin – pogostol, bulnesol, nor patchoulenol, bulnese, patchoulene, benzoic, cinnamic, eugenol, cadinene

Pennyroyal – pulegone, menthone, isomenthone, l--pinene, l-limonene, dipentene, menthol, tannin

Mint, Peppermint, Mentha piperta – menthol, menthone, menthyl acetate, menthofuran, limonene, pulegone, cineol, carvone, jasmone, carvacrol, phellandrene

Pine, Scotch, Pinus sylvestris – pinene, carene, dipentene. Limonene, terpinene, myrcene, ocimene, camphene, sabinene, bornyl acetate, cineol, citral, chamazulene, borneol, terpinyl acetate, cadinene, phelleandrene, pinene, sylvestrene

Rose, Cabbage, Rosa Centifolia – citronellol, phenyl ethanol, geraniol, nerol, stearopten, farnesol, geranic, eugenol, myrcene

Rose, Damask, Rosa damascena – citronellol, geraniol, nerol, stearopten, phenyl ethanol,
farnsesol, geranic, eugenol, myrcene

Rosemary, Rosmarinus officinalis – pinene, camphene, limonene, cineol, borneol, camphor,
linalool, terpineol, octanone, bornyl acetate, cuminic, caryophyllene

Tangerine, limonene, geranial, neral, geranyl acetate, geraniol , ß-caryophyllene, nerol, neryl acetate. 

Tea tree, Melaleuca alternifolia – terpinene-4-ol, cineol, pinene, terpinene, cymene

Wild Chamomile, myrcene, (E)-beta-farnesene, germacrene D, geranyl isovalerate, (Z)-en-yn-dicycloether, 7-methoxy-coumarin (or herniarin) 

Ylang-Ylang, Cananga odorata – methyl benzoate, methyl salicylate, methyl para-cretol,
benzyl acetate, eugenol, geraniol, linalool, pinene, cadinene, benzoic, farnesol, safrole

Measurement of capsaicin

Scoville scale

The Scoville scale is a measurement of the spicy heat (or piquance) of a chili pepper. The number of Scoville heat units (SHU)[1] indicates the amount of capsaicin present. Capsaicin is a chemical compound that stimulates chemoreceptor nerve endings in the skin, especially the mucous membranes; pure capsaicin has a Scoville rating of 16,000,000 SHU.

The scale is named after its creator, American pharmacist Wilbur Scoville. His method, devised in 1912, is known as the Scoville Organoleptic Test.[2] The modern commonplace method for quantitative analysis uses high-performance liquid chromatography, making it possible to directly measure capsaicinoid content.


When anthocyanidins are coupled to sugars, anthocyanins are formed


List Of Culinary Fruits




methyl cinnamate: Stawberry + cinnamon:

Eucalyptus olida has the highest known concentrations of methyl cinnamate (98%) with a 2-6% fresh weight yield in the leaf and twigs.[5]

Eucalyptus olida, also known as the Strawberry Gum, is a medium-sized tree to 20 m, restricted to sclerophyll woodlands on the Northern Tablelands of New South Wales, in Eastern Australia. The bark is fibrous in mature trees. Flowers are cream coloured and are followed by small woody capsules. The juvenile leaves are ovate (7 cm long) and dull green. Adult leaves are lanceolate and glossy green (to 17 cm). [1] The leaves are intensely aromatic and are used as a bushfood spice.

E.olida is classified as a threatened species in the wild, but is becoming more common in cultivation due to its essential oil and spice qualities.


methyl eugenol: expected carcinogen:


Monolignols are phytochemicals acting as source materials for biosynthesis of both lignans and lignin. The starting material for production of monolignols is the amino acid phenylalanine. The first reactions in the biosynthesis are shared with the phenylpropanoid pathway, and monolignols are considered to be a part of this group of compounds. There are three main monolignols: coniferyl alcohol, sinapyl alcohol and paracoumaryl alcohol. Different plants use different monolignols. For example, Norway spruce lignin is almost entirely coniferyl alcohol while paracoumaryl alcohol is found almost exclusively in grasses.

Monolignols are synthetised in the cytosol as glucosides. The glucose is added to the monolignol to make them water soluble and to reduce their toxicity. The glucosides are transported through the cell membrane to the apoplast. The glucose is then removed and the monolignols are polymerised into lignin.

The phenylpropenes are derived from the monolignols.


Labiatae - a large family of aromatic herbs and shrubs having flowers resembling the lips of a mouth and four-lobed ovaries yielding four one-seeded nutlets and including mint; thyme; sage; rosemary




Pharmacognosy is the study of medicines derived from natural sources. The American Society of Pharmacognosy defines pharmacognosy as "the study of the physical, chemical, biochemical and biological properties of drugs, drug substances or potential drugs or drug substances of natural origin as well as the search for new drugs from natural sources."[1] It is also defined as the study of crude drugs.


^ Shulgin, A. T.; Sargent, T.; Naranjo, C. (1967). "The Chemistry and Psychopharmacology of Nutmeg and of Several Related Phenylisopropylamines" (pdf). Psychopharmacology Bulletin 4 (3): 13. PMID 5615546.  edit 


Vanillin biosynthesis:
The biosynthesis of vanillin is achieved by the conversion of tyrosine into 4-coumaric acid then into ferulic acid and finally into vanillin. Vanillin is then converted into its corresponding glucose ester.